A steam turbine is a device that transforms thermal energy into mechanical energy that rotates. Turbines are used to move the rotor shafts of generators; General turbine parts are the heart of all power plants and are responsible for producing electricity by inducing an electromotive force in the generator coil. The dynamic action of the nozzle’s high-pressure steam discharge is necessary for the steam turbine to function.
Turbines come in four main categories: wind turbines, gas turbines, steam turbines, and water turbines.
Numerous scientists and engineers have created a variety of these designs. Steam turbines are used in industries, cogeneration facilities, and power plants.
All steam turbines share the same general turbine parts. However, the manner these parts are assembled varies depending on the turbine type. We also strive to familiarize you with these parts and the building of steam turbines by introducing them to you.
Components of steam turbine and their functions;
The core general turbine parts of steam turbines are the same, yet their arrangements vary greatly. Each steam turbine’s components are divided into ten groups. Together with the other components, each performs a distinct function that results in the steam turbine’s final operation and ultimate objective, power generation and kinetic energy.
You can learn about each of these general turbine parts in the following sections, and we’ll explain how they individually work in steam turbines.
- Steam chest and casing:
The steam chest and casing are connected to the higher-pressure steam supply line and the low-pressure steam exhaust line. The governor valve and the over-speed trip valve are housed in the steam chest that is attached to the casing. The rotor and nozzles, via which the steam is expanded and directed against the rotating buckets, are contained in the casing.
The rotor is made up of a bucket-equipped shaft and disc components. Through the bearing casings, the shaft protrudes past the casing. The driven pump is coupled to the shaft at one end, while the speed governor and over-speed trip mechanism are located at the other.
- Glands for casing sealing:
Seal the shaft and the casing. For this, spring-backed segmental carbon rings are employed with a spring-backed labyrinth portion for increased exhaust steam.
- The bearing cases:
As was already explained in the section on the rotor, the bearing cases connect to the rotor, support the rotor, and put the casing and steam chest together. The journal bearings and rotating oil seals in the bearing cases stop water, dust, steam intrusion, and oil leakage from the outside.
The rotor positioning bearing and the rotating parts of the excessive speed trip system are housed in the steam end bearing case. The speed rotating parts are enclosed inside the steam end-bearing housing extension. It is one of the essential components of general turbine parts.
- Governor system:
Governor systems are a part of the steam turbine and are speed-sensitive control systems. By adjusting the governor valve’s position, the steam flow through the turbine is changed to regulate the turbine speed.
It consists of spring-opposed spinning weights, a steam valve, and a linkage or servo motor system that connects them.
Through a direct link, a worm and worm wheel, or a magnetic impulse from gear, the governor detects the speed of the turbine shaft. Usually, The governor output signal to a servo motor is compared to a specified set point to determine the turbine speed.
The turbine speed will change as the inlet and exhaust steam conditions and the power needed by the pump change. The governor valve is then moved once the governor weights are moved due to the speed shift.
- Assembly of the reversing blade and nozzle ring:
The nozzle ring is fastened to the inside bottom portion of the steam end casing with a bolt. The steam flow from the steam chest is directed to the Curtis stage’s first row blades by the nozzles in the nozzle ring.
The Curtis stage has two rows of blades. The reversing blade assembly is fastened to the nozzle ring and situated between the blade rows. The steam flow is reversed as it leaves the first row of blades and is directed into the second row of blades of the Curtis stage by the reversing blades. Axial spacers are used to position the reversing blade assembly.
- Labyrinth seal:
By allowing a tiny amount of leakage, the labyrinth seal can reduce leakage from the high-pressure side to the low-pressure side. Labyrinth and shaft clearance is kept to an absolute minimum.
- Sentinel valve:
This alarm, situated on the top of the exhaust end turbine casing, sounds when the pressure inside the turbine casing is too high. The valve releases a small quantity of audible steam into the atmosphere when the casing pressure exceeds a specified value over the normal working pressure. There won’t be a relief valve in this valve.
- Steam auxiliary valves:
Steam auxiliary valves improve performance under fluctuating load or steam circumstances. The valves are situated between the steam chest and nozzle ring in the steam passageway, located in the lower half of the steam end turbine casing. Three distinct compartments have been cast into the tunnel.
Steam continuously flows through one compartment to a bank of nozzles in the nozzle ring. The steam flow to two different banks of nozzles in the same nozzle ring is controlled by supplementary hand valves on the other two.
- Turning Gears:
Large turbines use turning gears that allow the rotors to move gently during warm-up and cool-down. To maintain straightness and balance, we must keep the shaft or motor at a roughly consistent temperature around its circumference. Turning gears are one of from essential general turbine parts.
- Carbon Ring Seals:
A retention spring holds the individual carbon ring segments together. The bottom half of the interstate diagrams (casing) has notches that anti-rotation stops fit into to stop the rotation, which is stopped by carbon rings.
Static diaphragms include the interstate nozzles and seals and separate the inner stages. The following rows of whirling blades are hit by the steam that the nozzle has expanded. The diaphragms are adjusted during assembly to accommodate rotor deflection and ensure that the seals are concentric with the shaft. It is one of the valuable things in General turbine parts.
Shims at the bottom side of the grooves and adjustment screws at the horizontal junction are used to position the bottom half of the diaphragms vertically in the casing grooves and laterally. The upper half of the diaphragms lift with the casing cover is fastened in the casing by the same technique.
- Turbine Cylinders:
Turbine cylinders feature robust designs and thick walls because they must endure the pressure of the steam. Additionally, they are exposed to high steam temperatures, which are undesirable for components with thick walls.
The material may break when mechanical stress is combined with high pressures created by temperature gradients within rigid components.
- Over-speed trip system:
In an over-speed condition, the trip mechanism acts independently of the governor-controlled system. It closes the trip valve to stop the flow of steam to the turbine. It consists of an interconnected linkage, a quick-closing valve independent of the governor valve, and a spring-loaded pin or weight positioned on a collar inside the turbine shaft.
At a predetermined speed, the spring loading is overcome by the centrifugal force generated by the rotation of the pin in the turbine shaft.
It is necessary to allow for the General turbine parts’ overall expansion. Additionally, as more significant parts take longer to change their temperature than smaller parts during heating and cooling, temperature gradients become extremely harmful.
Thick cylinder walls are necessary to bear pressure; however, neither abrupt thickness changes nor asymmetrical layouts should be present to reduce thermal stress. As a result, the stress-bearingGeneral turbine parts’ profiles are necessarily smooth and rounded.
The distribution of Prismecs turbine parts is linked to regional supply chains. It indicates that the highest caliber hardware inventory is available when and when you need it. Our crew is always available to help you wonderfully. At any moment, you can call this number directly to get in touch with us. 18887747632.